Tocharian Concise Dictionary


Sources:

1. Tocharian Languages. Edited by V.Ivanov. Moscow, 1959.
2. Windekens, A.J., Le tokharien confronté avec les autres langues indo-européennes. Louvain, 1976.
3. Burlak, S. The Historical Phonetics of Tocharian languages. Moscow, 1995.
4. Gamkrelidze T., Ivanov V. Indo-European Language and Indo-Europeans. Moscow, 1984.
5. Fasmer, M. The etymological dictionary of the Russian language. Moscow, 1986.



Notes for Dictionary:
general - Common Tocharian or Tocharian A words
italic - Tocharian B words
á, í, ú - long [a], [i] and [u] sounds
ç - a sound like in Sanskrit açva or in English cashier
ä - a sound similar to German Käse (cheese) or English band
ñ - a soft [n'] sound
s' - palatal [s] usually written as a little line over it
n., m., r., s. - cerebral sounds
@ - the Indo-European 'schwa' sound



Dictionary (265):

açc- - a beginning, a start (Sanskrit ásad- - to get down, ádis - a start, Slavic *jézda - a riding)
ak, ek - an eye (IE *okw- - an eye)
ák- - to lead (IE *ag'- 'to lead')
ákär, pl. ákrunt - a tear (IE *dakru- 'a tear')
akmal - a face (see ak + malañ)
áknats - ignorant (IE *n.-gno-, Latin ignotus)
álp- - to reflect (Mansi al'p-t 'tincture')
amokyo - art (instr.sg.)
aryu - long (Luwian ara-)
asam.khe - a variety
as's'i - exactly (particle)
ats - exactly
ámpi - both (IE *ambh- + *bhó - both)
áñc - down
áñme - a soul (IE *anH- 'spirit')
ánt - through, across
ánt, ánte - a forehead (IE *ant- - fore, forehead)
ant-api - both (see ámpi)
ákás'acc - to the sky
ánte - a plain
áre - a plough (IE *ár- - to plough)
árki , árkwi- - white (IE *arg'- - white, shining; silver)
ártimár - we should love
ásta - bones (IE *kost-, *ost- - a bone)
ati - grass (IE *ad- - grain)
auk- - a snake (IE *angwi- 'snake')
bime - a thought, an idea
cai - they
cake - a river (IE *tek- - to flow, to run)
ckácar, tkácer - a daughter (IE *dhutér- - a daughter)
çtwar, çtwer - four (IE *kwetwores - four)
e-, ai- - to give (IE *ay- - to give, to take)
eçane - an eye
ents-, en'k - to bear (IE *nek'- - to bear, to carry)
i- - to go (IE *ei- - to go)
ime - memory, conscience (IE *weid- 'to see, to know', Sanskrit vidman- 'knowledge')
íkam - twenty (IE *wíkmot - twenty)
kaklyus.u - on hearing (verbal adverb) (see klyos-)
kakmu - on coming (verbal adverb)
kälk-, kalák- - to go (Finnish kulkea 'to go')
kaltr - he stops
käm- - to come (IE *gwem- 'come')
kam, keme - a ripple, a tooth (IE *gonbh- - a ledge)
känt, kant, kante - a hundred (IE *kmotom - a hundred)
käntu, kantwo - a tongue (IE *dng'uH- 'tongue')
kanwem, ken.ine - knees (dual, IE *genu- - a knee)
káryap - harm
käs - to go out, to extinguish (IE *gwes- - to extinguish)
kas.t, kest - famine (Hittite kast-)
kay-urs, ka-urs.e - a bull (IE *wers- - a bull)
kektseñe - a body (IE *kok'- 'part of body')
kerciye - a palace (IE *gher- - to stockade; a settlement)
kláw - to declare, to announce (IE *kleu- - to hear)
klots, klautso - an ear (IE *kleu- - to hear)
klyos- - to hear (IE *kleu- - to hear)
knán - to know (IE *gnó- - to know, from *gen- - kinship, a knee)
ko, keu - a cow (IE *gwou- - a bull)
ko, kau- - to kill (IE *kaHu- - dialectal)
kos.t- - to beat, to hit
kräm., kor - a nose (Sanskrit ghráti 'smells')
kran.ko - a cock, a rooster (IE *kerk- 'hen')
krons'e - a bee (IE *k'ers- - an insect)
kros's'une - coldness (cf. kuras')
ksaise - old
ktsai - to grow old
ku - a dog (IE *kwon- - a dog)
kukäl, kokale - a wagon (IE *kwel- - round, a wheel)
kulmänts - reed (IE *k'[email protected] - straw)
kum- - to come (IE *gwo- 'to come')
kumpäc - a drum
kuras', krost - cold (IE *krus- - an edge of ice?)
kuryar, karyor - a purchase (IE *kwreya- - to buy)
kus - who? (IE *kwis - who)kus, kuse - which (IE *kw-)
kwyall - why?
läk-, lake, läke - to lie, a bed (IE *legh- 'to lie')
laks, läks - a fish (IE *lak'@s- - fish, a salmon)
lap - a skull (Greek lophos - a nape, a hill, Slavic lob - a forehead)
lánt- - a king
lip- - to remain, to stay (IE *leikw- - to stay)
lk-, lyk- - to see (IE *léuk- - to see, to look)
lw - a beast
luks-, lyuk- - to illuminate (IE *leuk- - light)
lyutár - excessively (Welsh llid < *lúto- - rage, Russian lyuty - angry, terrible)
- not (Greek má, mé - not, Sanskrit - don't)
mácar, mácer - a mother (IE *mátér- - a mother)
mák, máki, makí, máka - much (IE *mag'- - large, many)
malañ, meli - a cheek, a nose
malk-, mälk- - to milk (IE *melg-, *melk- - to milk)
malto - for the first time (IE *mal-/*mel- - a top)
malyw, mely - to press (IE *mel- - to grind)
mañ, meñe - a month (IE *men-es- - moon, a month)
mänt - how
mäs's'unt - brains (IE *mazgh- - brains, Sanskrit majjan)
maiwe - young (IE *meH- 'to mature')
men'ki - less (IE *manw- - small, little)
mísa - meat, flesh (IE *méms- - meat)
mit - honey (IE *medhu- - honey)
mnu, mañu - a thought, a wish (IE *men- 'to think')
mrác - a head (IE *mregh-)
näk, nek - to extinguish, to die
nás - us (IE *nosmes - we)
nas.u - a friend (Greek neomai 'I return', Sanskrit nasate 'he joins')
nátäk - a master, a host (Greek Mycenaean wanaka)
nekcíye - in the evening (IE *nekw- 'night')
ñkat, ñakte - a god (IE *nekt- - a deity)
nmuk, ñumka - ninety (IE *newn- 'nine')
ñom, ñem - a name (IE *nem- - to call, to assign)
ñu, ñuwe - new (IE *newo- - new)
ñú - nine (IE *newno - nine)
nut, naut - to die (IE *náw- - a corpse, to die)
okät, okt - eight (IE *októ - eight)
oki - like (conjunction)
okso - a bull (Sanskrit uksá, Gothic auhsa)
oksis. - it grows (IE *aug- 'to grow')
oktuk, oktan.ka - eight (IE *ok'tók'omt- 'eighty')
om-post-am. - after that (IE *po- - after)
onkaläm - an elephant
onolme - a living being (Latin animal 'animal')
or - a tree (IE *drew- 'tree')
orkäm - gloom, darkness (Greek orphnos - dark, dark brown)
orto - up (Latin orior - I rise)
pältsäkk - a thought
pák, páke - a section (IE *bhag- - to share with smb)
pácar, pacer - a father (IE *pa'te'r - a father)
páci - right (not left)
päk-, päkw- - to cook, ripen (IE *pekw-/ *pokw- 'to cook')
päl, píle - a wound (IE *bhal- - ill, sick)
pält, pilta - a leaf (IE *bhel- 'leaf')
pañä, pis' - five (IE *penkwe - five)
pänt, pin.kce - fifth (see above)
papaks.u - something boiled (*pek-, *pekw- - to bake)
pärkär - long
pärwán,  pärwáne - an eyebrow (IE *bhrú- - an eyebrow)
pärvat,  pärwes.s.e - the oldest, a wizard (see parwe)
parno, perne - shining (participle)
parwe - at first (?) (IE *pro-wo- - forward, first)
pas. - he gave (Hittite pai- 'to give')
pás, pásk - to graze (IE *pá-, *paH- - to secure, to graze)
pe, paiyye - a foot (IE *ped- - a foot)
pik-, pek-, pin'k - to paint (IE *peik'- - to draw signs)
plák - to agree
plewe - a ship, a boat (IE *pleu- - to sail)
pñák, ps'áka - fifty (IE *penkwék'omt- 'fifty')
poke, pokai - an arm (IE *bhághu- - a hand, an arm)
pont-, puk, po, pont- - all, the whole (Greek pantos 'whole')
por., puwar - fire (IE *paur- - inanimate fire)
porat, peret - an axe (IE *pelk'- - to chop) - could be borrowed from Iranian
pracar, procer - a brother (IE *bhrátér- - a brother)
prak, pärk, prek- - to ask (IE *prok'- - to ask)
pratim' - a decision (Gothic fraþi 'understanding', Lithuanian protas 'mind')
pres'ciye - ooze
put-k - to judge, to divide (Latin putare - to think, Russian pytat' - to torture)
rake, reki - speech, a word (IE *rek- - to speak)
ratre, rtär, ratrem. - red (IE *reudh- - red, rust)
ri, riye - a city
rit - to search
s.äk, skas - six (IE *sweks - six)
säksäk, s.kaska - sixty (IE *swek'sk'omt- 'sixty')
s'äk, s'ek, s'ak - ten (IE *dekmot - ten)
sále, sályiye - salt (IE *sal- - grey, dirty; salt)
salu, solme - whole (IE *sol- 'unharmed, healthy')
sälk- - to pull out (IE *selk- - to drag, a furrow)
salu, solme - whole (IE *salw- - whole, healthy)
s'ályás, s'wályai - to the left
s.älyp, s.alype - fat, oil (IE *selp- - fat)
s.amáne - a monk
s'äm, s'ana - a wife (IE *gwen- - a wife, a woman)
s'ánmaya - he was proclaimed
s'anwem. - jaws (IE *g'enu- 'chin')
s.äptuk, s.uktan.ka - seventy (IE *septm.k'omt- 'seventy')
s.ar, s.er - a sister (IE *swesór- - a sister)
särk, sark - an illness (Lithuanian sirgti 'to be ill')
s'ärme - summer heat (IE *gherm- 'heat')
sas, se, s.eme, sana (f.) - one (IE *sem- - one, the only, alone)
s'reñ (pl.), s'cirye - star (IE *Haster- 'star')
se, soyä - a son (IE *sú- - to be born)
se (masc.), (fem.), te (neut.) - this (IE *so, *sá, *tod - this)
s'is'kiss - a lion (acc.sg.)
skente - they are (IE *es- - to be)
skiyo - a shadow (Sanskrit cháyá 'shadow', Greek skiá)
smimám. - smiling (participle) (IE *smey- - to laugh)
s.ñaura (pl.) - a sinew (IE *sneH- 'to sew')
sne, snai - without (Latin sine)
s'ol, s'aul - life (Greek zóó, Avestan jyátum)
s'om, s'aumo - a man (IE *dhg'hom- 'ground')
soma-, somo- - the same, similar (IE *smoo- - the same, some)
s'pál- - a head (IE *gheb- 'head')
s.päm, s.päne - a dream (IE *swep- - to sleep, *swep-no- - a dream)
s.pät, sukt - seven (IE *septom - seven)
spin- - a hook, a peg (IE *spey- - a peg)
s.tám, stám - a tree (IE *stá- - to stand)
s'tärt, s'twerne - fourth
s'twar, s'twer - four (IE *kwetwores 'four')
s'twarák, s'wárka - fourty (IE *kwetwr.k'omt- 'fourty')
s.top, s.tow - a stick (IE *stúp- - a branch, a stump)
su (masc.), sá (fem.), tu (neut.) - that (see se)
súrme - eye disease (IE *seHur- 'urine')
súwa - to eat (Slavic *z'ivati - to chew, Latvian z'aunas - gills, Old High German kiuwen - to chew, Armenian kiv - arboreal resin, Persian javiden - to chew)
suwam. - it is raining (IE *seu-, *su- - to rain, to flow)
suwo - swine (IE *sú- 'swine')
swase, swese - rain (see above)
täk- - to judge (IE *dek'- 'to judge')
täl-, tál-, perf. cacäl - to carry (Latin tollere)
täm - this (IE *to- - demonstrative pronoun)
tän'k-, tan'k- - to interfere (IE *tnog- - heavy, hard)
táno - grain (IE *doHná- 'grain, bread')
táp- - to eat (Latin daps 'cult meal')
tápärk - now (Russian teper' - now?)
tärná- - to let go (Hittite tarna-)
taryák, täryáka - thirty (IE *trík'omt- 'thirty')
tek- - to touch (Latin tangó 'I touch', Greek tetagón 'he who seized')
tetriwu - he pounds (IE *ter- - to rub)
tkam, kem - ground (IE *dhghom- - ground)
tmäk - that is why
tmäs' - then
träm-, tärm-, treme (pl.) - to shiver, a shiver (IE *trem- - to shake)
tri, tre, traiy - three (IE *treyes, *trí - three)
trit, trite - thrice (see above)
tsäk- - to burn (IE *dheig- 'to burn')
tsän- - to flow quickly (Old Persian danuvatiy 'flows')
tsáp-, tsáw- - to warm (IE *tep- 'hot, warm')
[email protected] - a hand (IE *g'hesro- - a hand)
tsär - rough, shaggy (IE *khar- - sharp)
tsatsápau - warmed (participle) (IE *tep- - warm)
tseke - an image (IE *dheig'- 'clay')
tsik - to generate
tsirauñe - power, strength
tsras'i - strong
tsu- - to link, to bind (IE *dhów- - to bind)
tu - thou (IE *tú - thou)
tumane, tumám. - ten thousand
tunk - love
twere - a door (IE *dhur-, *dhwer- 'door, gate')
wac - a quarrel, struggle (IE *wed- - to speak, to shout)
waiwalau - dizziness (IE *wel- - to turn, to twist)
wak, wek - voice (IE *wekw-/ *wokw- 'voice')
wäl, walo - a prince (IE *wal- - strong, powerful)
wäl- - to die (IE *wal- 'to die')
walke - long
wälts, yältse - a thousand
want, wänt,  yente - to fly, to breathe (IE *wé- 'to blow', Latin ventus 'wind', Hittite huwant-)
wáp - to weave
wär, war - water (IE *war- - water, wet)
wärkänt, yerkwantai - a ring, a wheel (IE *Hwerg'- 'wheel')
warto, wärto - a garden, a grove (IE *wer- - to defend, to close)
wäs- - to dress (IE *wes- 'to dress')
wäs, yasa, ysá- - gold
was.t-, ost - a house (Sanskrit vástu- 'dwelling')
wätk-, watk- - to order (see wac)
wes - we (IE *wei- - we, me and you)
weskemane - speaking (participle)
wiki, ikäm. - twenty (IE *wík'm.t- 'twenty')
wlalune - death (see wäl-)
wramm - a thing
wrauña - a crow
wu (masc.), we (fem.) - we two (see wes)
wu, wi - two (IE *duwo, *dwo - two)
yäl, ylem. - antelope (IE *el-, *ol- 'some beast')
yam, ya, yám - to do (Hittite aia- - to do)
yásk- - to ask, to bet (IE *yek- 'to swear, to ask')
yok - to drink
yokani - thirsting (participle)
ysar, yasár - blood (IE *esór- - blood)
ysäs. (3rd sg. pres.), yayásau (participle) - to boil (IE *yes- - to boil)
ytár (f.) - a path, a way (see i-)
yuk, yakwe - a horse (IE *ekwo- - a horse)


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