|Hellenic||Greek phratér (a brother), phrátór (a member of the brotherhood), phratria (a community)|
|Italic||Latin frater (a brother), Oscan fratrúm
(a brother; acc.sg.), Umbrian fratrom (a brother; acc.sg.), frater
French frère (a brother), Romanian frate, Megleno-Romanian frati, Istroromanian frote
|Celtic||Common Celtic *bratér, >
Gaulish Bratronius (personal name), Old Irish brathir, Irish bráthair, Scottish Gaelic bràthir, Welsh brawd, pl. brodyr, Cornish broder, pl. bredereth, Breton breur, breuzr, pl. breudeur
|Indic||Sanskrit bhrátár- (a brother), bhrátra- (brotherhood)|
|Dardic||Khowar brar (a brother)|
|Iranian||Avestan & Old Persian brátar- (a brother)|
|Anatolian||Lydian brafr- (a member of the community)|
|Armenian el'bair (a brother), gen. el'baur|
|Tocharic||Tocharian A pracar, B procer (a brother)|
|Balkan||Illyrian bra (a member of the community);
Albanian vla (a brother) ?;
Venetic vhraterei dat. 'to a brother'
|Germanic||Germanic *bróder (a brother), >
Gothic bróþar (a brother), Old English bróþor, Old High German bruoder, Old Norse broþir,
German Bruder, Dutch broer, Scots brither
|Baltic||Common Baltic *brat- (a brother), >
Lithuanian brolis, Zhemaitian bro'tis, Latvian bralis, Old Prussian brati, brote (brother, brothers), Sudovian bra'te'
|Slavic||Common Slavic *bratü (a brother), >
Russian brat, Old Church Slavonic bratru, Czech & Upper Sorbian bratr, Lower Sorbian brats', Polish & Slovene & Belorussian & Ukrainian brat
|Notes:||With this root we begin a series of Word-A-Weeks related to
family members. This set of words denoting relativeness is very popular in introductory
Indo-European courses - I believe words like this are the best example of the common roots
of all IE languages. They all - 'mother', 'father', 'sister', 'brather', 'daughter' - were
declined in the same way with the suffix *-er which is preserved in English
as well. Another characteristic feature is that these roots are very stable in all
branches, so even now they sound the same in a lot of different languages.
In many languages of the East (Altaic, African etc.) there are different words for terms like 'elder brother' and 'younger brother'. Indo-European has only one brother, and this kind of analytic trend existed already in the Proto-language.