Thracian Glossary.


1. Neroznak, V. Paleo-Balkan Languages. Moscow, 1978.
2. Fasmer, M. Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language. Moscow, 1986.
3. Georgiev, V. Ezyk na trakite.
4. Duridanov, I. Ezikyt na trakite, Sofia, 1976.

Notes for Glossary:
H = hydronym;
RN = river name;
VN = village name;
PN = place name
Lith., Lit. - Lithuanian
Latv. - Latvian
Russ. - Russian
Bulg. - Bulgarian
Ind. - Indic
Avest. - Avestan
Pruss. - Prussian
Pelasg. - Pelasgian
Goth. - Gothic
Icel. - Icelandic
Toch. - Tocharian
Alb. - Albanian

Note: The Glossary is partly reconstructed from hydronyms, place names and other traces of Dacian and Thracian languages.


achel-water (noun), water (adj.)’ [Lith. H Akele., Phryg. akala ‘water’].
aiz-a goat’ [Armen. aic, Greek aix].
ala current, stream’ [Latv. H Alaja, Lith. ale.ti ‘flooded’].
alonhon 'a spear'
alta(s)current, stream’ [Illyrian RN Altus, Russ. (from Balt.) RN Al'ta].
an(a)at, on’ [Avest. ana ‘along’, Greek aná ‘at, along’, Goth. ana ‘at, towards’].
ang- curved, twisting’ [Old-Ind. ancati ‘a curve’, Greek ankos ‘valley, abyss’].
ant(i)against’ [Old-Ind. ánti ‘against, nearby, the Lith. ant ‘towards, against’, Toch. ánt ‘through’, Greek antí ‘against’, etc.].
apa, aphus water, river; a spring’ [Old-Pruss. ape ‘river’, apus ‘spring’, Old-Ind. ap- ‘water’].
apsaaspen’ [Altin apse ‘aspen’, Old-Pruss. abse, Pol. osa (from Proto-Slavic *apsá), Old-HighGerman aspa ‘aspen’].
argilos - 'a mouse'
armaswamp, bog’ [Lith. arma ‘bog, puddle’, armuo, -ens ‘the same’].
ars-to flow; current, river’ [Old-Pruss. RN Arsio, Arse, Old-Ind. árs,ati ‘to flow’, Hitt. arš- ‘the same’].
arta(s), arda(s)current. river’ [Old-Ind. árdati ‘to flow’, Greek ardó ‘to bedew’].
arzaswhite’ [IE *arg'- (white, clear)].
asa(s)stone’, as(a)mstony’ [Old-Ind. as’man ‘stone; heaven’, Avest. asman- ‘the same’, Pelasg. asáminthos (stone) bath’, Lith. akmuo, -ens ‘stone’].
asa  ‘colt’s foot (Tussilago farfara)’. That was its Bessian name according to Dioskurides. It is related to the Lit. dial. asys ‘horse-tail, Equisetum’, Latv. aši, ašas ‘horse-tail, sedge, rush’, which are probably related to the Latv. ašs, ass ‘sharp’, Old-Bulg. ostrý, Lit. aštrus ‘sharp’.
asn - 'I, me' , [IE *eg'hom, Lit. aš 'I, me'].
atat, towards’ [IE *ad-, Latin ad 'to, towards', Latv. ad ‘at, towards’, Old-Icel. at ‘at, opposite to’].
ath-high, steep coast, a hill’ [Greek akté ‘steep coast, peninsula, cape’].
at(u) current, stream’ [Latv. RN Adula, German Attel, Avest. adu- ‘current, stream, channel’].
balios 'white', [IE *bhel-].
bebrusbeaver’ [Lith. bebrus ‘beaver’, Old-Pruss. bébrus, Bulg. VN Bebrovo, Old-HighGerman bibar, etc.].
bend-to bind’, marriage [Old-Ind. bándhana- ‘binding’, Avest. bandayaiti ‘to bind’, Goth, Anglo-Saxon bindan, German binden ‘to bind’].
berasbrown, swarthy’ [Lith. be.ras ‘brown’, Latv. bers ‘the same’, Old-HighGerman bero ‘a bear’ (initially ‘brown’)].
berga(s)hill, bank’ [Old-Icel. berg ‘mountain’, Old-HighGerman berg, German Berg ‘mountain’, Old-Bulg. breg@, New-Bulg. brjag ‘bank, coast’].
berza(s)birch’ [IE *bherg'- 'a birch', Lith. bérz'as, Latv. berzs, Old-Pruss. berse, Russ. ber'oza, Bulg. breza ‘birch’].
bolinthos ‘wild bull, bison’. The word is attested in Aristotle, according to whom that animal lived in the Messapian mountain, which separated the country of the Peonians from that of the Maideans (a Thracian tribe inhabiting the middle course of Struma and upper course of Mesta), and that the Peonians called it mónapos. Therefore, bolinthos was a Maidean, that is, a Thracian word. It is compared to the German Bulle ‘bull’ and is derived from the IE *bhun-ent.
bonassos 'a bull' [IE *gwou-, Latin bos, bovis 'a bull'].
bor- 'mountain' [in Huper-boreoi 'those living behind the mountain'; IE *Hegwr- 'hill, mountain'].
bredaspasture-ground’ [Russ. bred, bredina ‘pasture’, bresti, bredu ‘to cross by a ford’, Balt. (Zhemait.) RN Bred-upja].
brentas (brendas) ‘deer’ [Messap. bréndon ‘deer’].
bria ‘town’ (Strab.; Steph. Byz. under the word of Messembria). Both authors state the word was Thracian. It is often found as a second component of Thracian settlement names, for example: Messembria, Poltymbria, Sélymbria, Skedabria, etc. The Thracian ‘bria’ is related to the Toch. A ri, B riye ‘town (a refuge on a hill)’ – from the IE *wrijá.
brilón - 'a barber', [Slavic *briti 'to shave', Old-Ind. bhrinati 'he hurts', Persian burridan 'to cut'].
brink- to swell’ [Lith. brinkti [brinkstu) ‘to swell’, Pol. na-brekac' ‘the same’].
briza ‘spelt, rye’ (Gal. de alim. facult. 1, 13/6 p. 514. Kühn). The author (Galen) saw this plant in Thracia and in Macedonia and concluded the word was Thracian. It is very probable. There are several etymologies for this word, that of A. Fick being the most acceptable one. A. Fick relates the Thracian briza to the Old-Ind. vrihi-h, Pers. birinj, Afg. vriz'e ‘rice’, Greek orinda=óryza ‘rice’, from which the Bulg. oriz. There is an alternative interpretation: the Thracian bryza is related to the Lith. brizdis ‘ling’, from the stem of the verb brigzti ‘to be torn, to get unraveled’.
bruzasquick’ [Lith. bruz'as ‘somebody who runs to and fro’, the Slavic *b@rz@, Bulg. br@z].
brynchós ‘guitar for the Thracians’ (Hesych.). The word is related to the Pol. brzek ‘a ringing, a tinkle’, Ukr. brjak ‘a ringing, a sound’.
brytos (masc.), bryton (neuter) ‘a kind of ale from barley, a beer’ (Archil. Hecat. and others), brutos (Hesych.), bryttion (Herodian.). The word was used by the Thracians, the Peonians and the Phrygians.
bur, buris (boris) ‘man’ [Alb. burrë ‘man’].
burt- (burd-)  ‘a ford’ [Slavic *brod@, Bulg. brod ‘a ford’].
búzasa goat’ [Avest. búza- ‘a goat’].
chalasmud’ [Old-Bulg. kal@, New-Bulg. kal ‘mud’, Czech kal ‘swamp; mud. soft soil’].
damasettlement, place for settling’ [Old-Ind. dháman- ‘place for dwelling’, Greek thaimós ‘house’].
daphasa flood’ [Lith. dapas ‘a flood’, Norw. dial. dave ‘puddle, pool’].
darsas (dersas) ‘brave, courageous’ [Old-Pruss. dyrsos (pl.) ‘able, brave’, Avest. daršyu- ‘brave, strong’].
datan (datas) ‘place, settlement’ [Alb. datë ‘place, settlement].
dava - 'a town'
dentu-clan, tribe’ [Latv. gens ‘clan, tribe’].
dero, dur 'a stockade', [IE *dhwer- 'a door, a gate'].
desa(s), disa(s)deity, god’ [IE  *deiwo-, Greek théos ‘a god’].
-didzos, -didza 'to create' [Russ. so-zdat 'to create', Lith. z'iedz'iu 'I form, I mould', Goth. deigan 'to puddle', Old-Ind. déhmi 'I plaster', Old-Pers. didá 'a fort', Greek teikhos 'a wall', Latin fingo, fictus 'I puddle', Oscan feihúss 'walls'].
dingafertile  ground’ [Latv. dinga ‘fertile place’,  Old-Icel. dyngia ‘dunghill’].
dizafortress’ [Avest. uz-daéza ‘a heaping, a fortification’, Old-Pers. didá, New-Pers. diz, déz ‘fortress’].
dónplace, country(side)’ [Old-Ir. dú, Gen. don ‘place, country(side)’, Greek chthón ‘soil, land’].
douro- 'strong' [Celt. *duro-].
drenisdeer’ [Alb. dre, dreni ‘deer’].
dul 'a house, a family'.
dumasdark’ [Lith. dúmas ‘dark, dark brown (for cattle)’, Latv. dúms ‘dark brown’].
dún-hill, mountain’ [Celtic *dunum 'a hill', Anglo-Saxon dún hill, mountain’, German Düne ‘dune’].
ebros 'a goat' [IE *kapro-, Gaulish gabro- 'a goat', Old Irish gabor 'a goat', Irish gabhar].
e(i)b-to flow, to drip’ [Pelasg. eibó ‘to drip, to flow (out)’].
ermasfierce, mad’ [Alb. jerm ‘furious, mad’].
esko 'to eat' [IE *ed- 'to eat'].
esvas (ezvas), esb ‘a horse’ [IE  *ekwo- 'a horse'].
gagila 'a jackdaw' [Slavic *gala 'a jackdaw'].
gaidrus bright, clear’ [Lith. gaidrus ‘bright, clear (cloudless)’, Greek phaidrós ‘shining, bright, cheerful’].
gava(s) county, countryside’ [Goth. gawi ‘county’, pre-Greek gaia, Att. gé ‘land, region’].
genton 'a piece of meat'.
germas warm, hot’ [IE *gherm-, Old-Ind. gharmá- ‘heat’, Armen. j^erm’warm’, Greek thermós ‘the same’].
gesa stork kingfisher’ [Old-Pruss. geeyse ‘kingfisher’, Latv. dzése ‘heron, kingfisher’].
gin- to languish, to spoil, to dry out’ [Old-Kurian Ginulle (a stream), Latv. g'nins ‘to spoil, to languish’].
haimos (-on), *saimas (-an) ridge, mountain chain’ [Old-Ind. simán- ‘ridge, boundary’, Irish sím ‘chain’].
heris 'a hand' [IE *khesro- 'a hand', Greek kheir 'a hand', Hittite keššar 'a hand'].
ida (ide) tree; forest’ [Old-Ir. fid, Gen. fedo ‘tree, trees, forest’].
iet(e)r (=jeter-) quick, agile’ [Old-HighGerman átar ‘quick’, Latv. atrs ‘quick’].
iltea 'a chosen woman'.
íl(u)- silt, mud’ [Greek ílys, -ýos ‘mud, silt’, Church Slavic il@ ‘the same’].
iúras (=júras) water, river’ [Lith. júra ‘a sea’, Old-Nord. úr ‘drizzle’].
kaba(s)bog, swamp’ [Engl. quab].
kalasdistrict, border region’ [Lith. galas ‘end, border of a field, meadow or forest’, Latv. gals ‘neighbourhood’].
kalsasdry, dried up’ [Latv. kálst (-stu, -tu) ‘to dry up, to wither’].
kamoles 'beloved'.
kapashill, slope’ [Latv. kapa, kape ‘long mountain strip, dune, slope’, Lith. kopa ‘and hill, dune’].
kel(l)aa spring’ [Old-HighGerman quella, German Quelle ‘a spring’].
kenthasa child, descendant’ [Latv. re-cens ‘fresh, young, new’, with another suffix in the New-Bulg chedo ‘a child’].
kersasblack’ [Lith. kéršas ‘on black and white spots’, Bulg. cheren ‘black’, Old-Ind. krsná ‘black, dark’].
ketri-, ketre-four’ [IE *kwetwores, Greek tetra ‘four’, Cymr. pedry- ‘four-fold’, Lith. keturi, Latv. c'etri, Bulg. c'etiri ‘four’].
kik-live, agile’ [Anglo-Saxon cwicu, Old-Nord. kvikr, kykr ‘live, agile’, Engl. quick].
kiri- [or kira] ‘mountain’, ‘forest’ [Old-Ind. girí-h ‘mountain’, Avest. gairi- ‘the same’, Lith. giria, gire ‘forest, wood’. Latv. dzira ‘forest’].
knisa(s)eroded place’ [Lith. knisti ‘to dig’].
kupselaa heap, a hillock’ [Lith. kupse.lis ‘heap, hillock’].
kurp-to burrow’ [Lith. kurpti (-i?) ‘to burrow’, Russ. korpat’ ‘to burrow’].
kurtagroove, wood’ [Old-Pruss. korto ‘groove’ from the Baltic *kurtá].
laza (-as) ‘clearing (in forest), glade’ [Serbo-Croat läz ‘clearing’, Russ. laz ‘animal pathway to a river (lake)’, lazina 'clearing’].
lingasdepression, meadow’ [Lith. lénge ‘low land’, PN Linge, Bulg. long@ ‘meadow’].
mandakes ‘a binder for sheaves’
marieus 'lime' [IE *mar- 'dirty, unclear'].
mar- water, river, bog’ ["European" *mar- 'sea', Gaulish mor- 'sea', Anglo-Saxon merisc ‘swamp’, Old-Icel. moerr ‘swampy country’].
marka bog; swampy country’ [Lith. mark? ‘a pit for steeping flax or hemp’, Ukrain. morokva ‘bog’].
melda(s) marshy reed’ [Lith. melda, méldas ‘marsh reed’, Latv. meldi ‘reed’, Old-HighGerman melta].
mér- large, great’ [IE *mér-, Church Slavic personal name Vladi-mer@, Old-HighGerman Volk-már, Hlodo-már, Old-Icel. már ‘big’].
mezéna a horseman’ [Alb. mes, mezi ‘stallion’, Roman. (substrat) mînz ‘stallion’].
midne 'a settlement'.
mukaseed, clan, posterity’ [Iran. muka- in the Osset. mug? ‘family’, muggag ‘seed, clan’].
mukas swampy country, a bog’ [Latv. muka ‘swamp, where one can sink’, mukls ‘swampy’, Lith. RN Múke.].
musasmoss, mould’ [Old-HighGerman, Anglo-Saxon mos ‘moss, swamp’, German Moss ‘moss’, Church-Slav. m@h@ ‘moss’, Lith. musai, pl. ‘mould on yoghourt’].
neos 'new' [IE *newo- 'new'].
nest-rumbling, roaring’ [Old-Ind. nádati ‘to rumlble, to roar’, nadi- ‘river, current’].
niva 'snow' [IE *sneigwh- 'snow'].
óstas river mouth’ [Lith. úostas, uosta ‘river mouth; a port’, Latv. uosts-, uosta ‘the same’, Latin óstium ‘river mouth’, Old-Bulg. uostije ‘the same’].
pa(i)vischild, son’ [Greek Homer pavis, Att. paus, pais].
paisa(s) soot’ [Lith. paišai ‘soot’].
palaswamp, bog’ [Lith. palios, pl. ‘big swamp. bog’, Latv. pal,as, pal,i ‘swampy banks of a lake’, Latin palus ‘lake’].
palmaswamp, bog’ [from pala with the suffix -má].
pan(i)swamp, quagmire, peat-bog’ [Old-Pruss. pannean ‘quagmire’, Goth. fani ‘silt’, etc.].
para, pharasettlement, village’, marketplace [from the IE *(s)porá as ‘village’].
paurakis 'small' [Latin paucus 'small'].
pauta(s)foam’ or ‘foaming’ [Old-Pruss. RN Pauta, Lith. puta ‘foam’, putóti ‘to foam’, Latv. putas ‘foam’].
perboy, son’ [Lat. puer ‘child, boy, son’].
per(u)-a rock’ [Hett. peruna- ‘a rock’, Old-Ind. párvata- ‘mountain’].
pés boy, child’ [Greek paus, pais ‘child’, Cypr. pas ‘the same’].
pi - 'beside, more'
pinon 'a drink' [IE *poi-, *pi- 'to drink', Latin pibo 'I drink', Slavic *piti 'to drink'].
pitye 'a treasure'
piza(s)bog, meadow’ [Latv. písa ‘deep swamp’, Greek písea, pl. ‘damp places, meadow’].
poltyn 'a fortress'
pras- (resp. *praus-) ‘to wash, to splash, to bedew’ [Lith. prausti ‘to wash, to sprinkle’, Latv. prauslat ’to splash, to besprinkle’, Old-Ind. prusnó'ti ‘to splash’].
puis, pus, pyschild, son’ [-pu(i)s = Greek Att. paus ‘child, son’].
pupabeans’ or ‘hill’ (?) [Lith. pupa ‘beans’ or Alb. pupë ‘hill’].
pura-maize, spelt’ [Greek pyrós ‘maize’, Lith. púrai ‘winter maize’, Church Slavic p@iro ‘spelt’].
purdaswampy, damp place’ [Latv. purdul,i ‘a snivel’, Greek pardakos ‘damp, wet’].
puris, poris, por, pyris, pyros, pyrson, boy’ [Latin pure ‘child, boy, son’ in Latin PN Marci-por, Nae-por, óli-por, Etr. nei-pur, naei-purs].
pus, pyschild, son’ - see puis.
pusinasspruce forest, pine forest’ [Lith. pušynas ‘spruce forest’ from pušis ‘pine, spruce’].
putrasbawler, squaller, babbler’ [Old-Latv. personal name Putre, Latv. putruôt, putrât ‘to cry, to speak fast’].
raimasmotley’ [Lith. ráimas ‘motley, particoloured’].
raka(s) ‘eroded place, a gully’ [Lith. rakti ‘to burrow’].
ramusquiet, calm’ [Lith. ramus ‘quiet’, Old-Ind. rámate ‘to stay quiet, to rest’].
raskusquick, agile, live’ [Old-HighGerman rasc ‘quick’, German rasch ‘the same’, Engl. rash].
rerastones, stony ground’ (from an earlier *lera) [Alb. lerë, -a ‘stones, fallen stones’].
rézas (resas) ‘king’ [Latin rex ‘king’, Old-Ind. raj- ‘the same’].
ring- (rink-) ‘quick, skillful’ [Old-HighGerman (ge)-ringi ‘light’, Middle-German ge-ringi ‘light. quick’, Greek rhimpha  ‘quickly, skillfully’].
romfea 'an arrow, a staff'
rudasred, reddish’ [Lith. RN Rud-upe., adj. rudas ‘(red-) brown, reddish’, Latv. ruds ‘reddish’].
rumba(s)edge; rapids’ [Lith. rumbas ‘periphery’, Latv. rumba ‘waterfall, rapids’].
rús-a (-as, -is) ‘a pit’ or rus-slowly flowing’ [Old-Pruss. PN Russe (a village and a swamp), Lith. rúsys (and rúsas) ‘potatoe’s pit; hut’, Latv. rúsa ‘pit; or the Litv. ruse.ti ‘to flow slowly’].
sabazias free’ [Old-Bulg. svobod' ‘free’].
saldas, saltas (instead of *zaldas) ‘golden’ [Old-Bulg. zlato (from the Proto-Slavic *zalta) ‘gold (noun)’ , New-Bulg. zlato ‘gold’, zlaten ‘golden’].
sara current, stream’ [Old-Ind. sará ‘river, stream’].
sartas light-red’ [Lith. sartas ‘light-red (for horses)’, Latv. sarts ‘red’].
satras (satrus) live, quick, agile’ (?) [Lith. šatrus ‘live, quick, agile, row’].
saut-is (-as) lazy’ [Latv. sautis ‘lazy man, who sleeps all the time’].
sei(e)tuva ‘deep place in the river’ [Lith. sietuve. ‘deep place in the river’].
seina(s) village, settlement’ [Armen. šén, Gen. sini ‘village’, Greek Rhod. kroina ‘residence’].
sékas grass, greenery; hay’ [Lith. še.kas ‘recently mowed down grass’, Old-Ind. s'áka- ‘vegetable’].
sem(e)la (= zeml’a) ‘land, earth’ [Old-Bulg. zemlja, Russ. zemlja, Lith. zeme, Latv. zeme].
serma, sermascurrent, stream’ [Old-Ind. sárma-h ‘current’, Lith. RN Sérmas].
siltaswarm, pleasant’ [Lith. šiltas ‘warm, pleasant’, Latv. silts ‘warm’, Cymr. clyd ‘warm, warming’].
sind(u)-river’ [Old-Ind. sindhu- ‘river’, Old-Pers. hindus ‘the same’].
singaslow land, depression’ [Goth. sigqan, Old-HighGerman sinkan, German sinken ‘to sink, to collapse’].
siros 'a granary'
skaivasleft’ [Greek skaiós ‘left’, Latin scaevus ‘the same’].
skalme 'a sword'
skalp-to beetle, to hit’ [Lith. skalbti (-biu, -biau) ‘to beetle, to dolly (for laundry)’].
skaplisaxe’ [Lith. skaplis ‘axe’].
skapt-to dig’ [Lith. skaptúoti ‘to cut, to carve (in wood)’, Greek skápto ‘to dig’].
skaras (-is) ‘quick’ [Old-Bulg. skor@, Russ. skor@j ‘quick’, etc. (Proto-Slavic *skar@)].
skarké 'a coin'
skarsastransverse, slanting’ [the Greek en-kársios, epi-kársis ‘curved, bent, transverse’, Lith. skersas ‘transverse, oblique].
skilasquick, impetuous’ [Lith. skilti ‘set fire’ and ‘run mad’]
skretacircle, circumference’ [Lith. skrete. ‘a (round) disk’, skrite. ‘circumference’].
skumbr-as (or -is) ‘hill, mountain’ [Lith. kumbrys, kumbris ‘hillock, hill, mountain peak, small mountain’].
spinda(s)clearing (in the forest)’ [Lith spindis ‘clearing in the forest’].
spinos 'coal'
stra (from an earlier *strava) ‘current, torrent’ [Lith. srava ‘current’, Latv. strava ‘current, torrent’].
strambasstubble-field’ [Old-Pruss. strambo ‘stubble-field’, the Latv. struobs ‘a spray, a stem, a straw’ ].
strumá, strumóncurrent, river’ [Old-HighGerman stroum, German Strom ‘current’ river’, Lith. sraumuo, -ens ‘fast current’, srúti (srúvu, dial. srúnu) ‘to fill with water’ and ‘to flow, to outflow the banks (for a river)’].
strúnacurrent, river’ [Lith. sriti ‘to fill with water, to outflow’].
stur(ia)country, countryside’ [Old-Bulg strana (Proto-Slavic *starná) ‘country’, Bulg. pro-stor ‘expanse, space’].
suchis, sukis, suku(s) (-os) ‘girl’, resp. ‘boy, juvenile’ [Cymr. hogen ‘girl’, hogyn ‘boy, lad’, Lith. súnus ‘son’, Old-Bulg. s@in ‘son’, etc.].
sukaa crack, a gorge, a pass’, [Lith. šuke. ‘a gap, a crack’].
sulagroove’ [Greek hýle ‘forest, groove’].
sunkasap, fluid’ [Lith. sunka ‘sap (of a tree); fluid’].
sura (zura) ‘current, stream’ [Old-Ind. sirá ‘current. stream’].
surasstrong, brave; a hero’ [Old-Ind. súra-h ‘a hero, a warrior’, Avest. súra- ‘brave, courageous; a hero’].
surassalty, bitter’ [Lith. súras ‘salty’, Latv. surs ‘salty, bitter, sour’].
svit- to shine, to twinkle’ [Lith. švite.ti ‘to shine, to twinkle’, Old-Bulg. svüteti sia) ‘to shine’].
tarpas, terpas a gap, a crack’ [Lith. tárpas, térpü ‘an interstice, a crack’, Proto-Slavic *tarp@ ‘a pit, a ditch’].
taru- spear’ [Greek dóry ‘tree’ and ‘spear’, Hett. taru- ‘tree, trees’, Old-Ind. dáru- ‘tree’].
therm  'a tribe'
thin- ‘to hold, to carry’ [Latin teneó, -ere ‘to hold’].
thurd- to crash, to collapse’ [Old-HighGerman sturzen, German stürzen ‘to overthrow, to fall’].
tirsas thicket’ [Lith. tirštis ‘density, thickness’ and ‘thicket, brush-wood’, tiršti (tirštu) ‘to thicken’].
titha light, radiance’ [Greek titó' ‘morning glow; morning, day’, Alb. ditë ‘day’].
tón  'a present' [IE *dó- 'to give'].
tranas rotting’ [Lith. RN Tranys, trene.ti ‘to rot, to decompose’].
traus-to break, to crumble’ [Lith. traušti ‘to break, to crumble’, traušus ‘brittle’, the Latv. trauss, trausls ‘brittle, fragile’, Old-Russ. troh@ ‘lazy; sad’].
tri 'three' [IE *treyes, *trí 'three'].
tund- 1. ‘to push, to knock’; 2. ‘river’ [1. Latin tundó, -ere ‘to push, to knock’, Old-Ind. tundaté ‘to push’. 2. Old-Icel. ?und ‘river’].
tuntasa flock, a flight; a heap’ [Lith. tuntas ‘a flock, a flight; a heap, a pile’].
turm-a run, a flight’ [Old-Ind. drámati ‘to run’, Greek drómos ‘a run’].
udra(s)otter’ [IE *wed-, *wod-, Old-Ind. udráh ‘water animal’, Avest. udra- ‘otter’, Greek hydros, Old-HighGerman ottar, Lith. údra, Bulg. vidra ‘otter’].
udrénaswater, aquatic’ [IE *wed-, *wod- 'water'].
úkasmist; misty, turbid’ [Lith. úkas ‘a mist; clouding; fume, vapour’, úkanas ‘cloudy, turbid’].
upariver’ [Lith. úpe. ‘river’, Latv. upe ‘river, stream’].
-upula 'apple?' [IE *amlu-, *samlu- 'apple'].
urda(s)stream’ [Lith. urdulys ‘(mountain) stream, pool’, Latv. urdavin,a ‘stream’].
usku-water; aquatic, marshy’ [Old-Ir. u(i)sce ‘water’, Old-Cymr uisc, Irish esc ‘water, bog, swamp’].
utos water, river’ [IE *wed-, *wod-, Old-Ind. ud-án- ‘water’, Greek hydos ‘the same’].
vair-as (-us) ‘spinning’ [Lith. vairus, vairas ‘spinning’, Swed. vírr ‘a spiral’].
varpasaswhirlpool’ [Latv. várpats ‘whirlpool’, the Lith. varpyti (-pau, -piau) ‘to dig, to burrow’].
veger- (resp. *veker-) ‘damp; to bedew’ or ‘haymowing’ [Dutch wak ‘damp’, Latv. vedzere etc.].
veleka(s)place for washing’ [Lith. vele.kles ‘a place, used for washing’, vele.ti ‘to wash (with a paddle)’].
ver- to spring, to issue’ [Lith. vírti (vérdu, viriau) ‘to boil, to bubble’, the Old-Bulg. v'reti v'rion ‘to spring, to boil’].
verza(s) a barrier used for fishing; dam’ [Latv. varza ‘dam’].
zalmos 'a skin'
zan 'a clan, a family' [IE *g'en- 'to give birth, a kin'].
zbel- (from an initial *zibel-) shining; a thunderbolt, a lightning’ [Latv. zibele ‘shining’, zibelêt ‘to flash, to twinkle, to shine’].
zburul- light (noun); shining’ [Lith. z'iburys ‘light’ (noun)’].
zeira 'a kind of chiton'.
zelas - 'wine'.
zelmisan offspring, descendant’ [Lith. z'elmuo, -ens ‘plant’ and ‘an offspring’].
zenis, zenésborn, born in’ [=genes in the Greek personal name of Dio=génes, from the IE *g'en- ‘to give birth’ in the Old-Latin geno ‘to produce, to give birth’].
zéri- (from an earlier *zvéri-) ‘an animal, a beast’ [Lith. z've.ris ‘a beast’, Old-Bulg. zver@ ‘the same’, Greek thér].
zetraia 'a pot'.
zi-god’ [shortened from ziu-, zia- and similar, IE *deiwo- 'sky god', Greek Zeus].
zilasgrey,  turned grey’ or ‘blue’ [Lith. z'ilas ‘grey-haired’, Latv. zils, zilš ‘blue’].
zilma(s) greenery’ [Latv. zelme ‘green grass or wheat’].
zombros 'a bison?' [Slavic *zo.brü, Latv. subrs 'a bison', Old Prus. wissambris 'a bison', Old Icel. visundr 'a bison'].
zum-, zuml- dragon’ [Old-Bulg zm'i ‘dragon’, zm'ia ‘snake’].
zvaka(s) bright, white’ [Lith. z'vake. ‘light (noun)’].

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