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Anatolian languages
The most ancient Indo-European texts were written in Anatolian languages in the 18th century BC. This branch of the Indo-European family spread over the territory of modern Turkey and northern Syria. Historically, the languages of this group are sometimes divided into two subgroups: Early Anatolian, including those spoken in the Hittite Kingdom and around it before the 10th century (Hittite, Luwian Hieroglyphic, Luwian Cuneiform, and Palaic) and Late Anatolian, spoken in West Asia Minor in the 8th - the 2nd centuries BC (Lydian, Lycian, Carian, Sidetian, Pisidic). Another division is made between Hittite and its dewcendants (Lydian and Carian) and, from the other side, Luwian with its offsprings, such as Lycian and Sidetian.

Hittite, Palaic and Luwian inscriptions and texts were written in cuneiform, close to that of Akkadian. Another system of writing is the number of Luwian hieroglyphs which were used in 16-8 centuries BC. The majority of Late Anatolian documents were made in this or that variety of Alphabets of Asia Minor, originating from the Semitic alphabets. The only exception is Pisidic, which was written in Greek letters.

The phonetic system of Anatolian languages includes 4 original vowels: a, e, i, u. Of them, e was the most unstsble, moving to a in :Luwian and sometimes in Palaic. Later numerous nasal vowels are forming in Lydian, Carian, Lycian, and also the letter o which resulted from diphthongs. The status of some other vowels in Lydian and Lycian still remains unclear: y, é, etc.
Hittite, Luwian and Palaic languages fell out of use in about the 10th century BC. After Alexander's expeditions, Greek colonists settled in Anatolia, causing fast assimilation of Lydians, Lycians and other remnants of Anatolian peoples. The last mentioning of Lydians and their language is found in Strabo's works in the 1st century AD.