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The Semigalian language
Group Baltic (with Old Prussian, Lithuanian etc.), East Baltic (with Lithuanian, Latvian and Selonian)
Geography Lithuania, parts of north-eastern Poland
History When the modern people of Latvia was only a group of tribes, the most important of them were Latgalian, Zemgalian, Curonian. Semigalians or Zemgalians (Zem'gola in Russian) used to live in the central parts of Latvia, north to the Daugava (Dvina) river. They went through the initial feudalism forming and in the 12th century together with Latgalians founded two little principalities: Talava and Gertsike, the last governed by Russian princes. Semigalians had close relations with Eastern Slavs, further Kiev Russia, Lithuanian principalities and bordered with Livonians and Estians, Finnish tribes who lived north to them. In the beginning of the 13th century Teutonic Knights conquered the lands of Prussians, Curonians, and in 1212 came to Semigalia. In two years the struggle of Semigalians was suppressed, in 1214 the Talava principality was conquered. 
Phonetics The Semigalian language carried several features characteristic also to Curonian and somehow close to Latvian.  Common Baltic k, g in their soft variety bacame c, dz in Semigalian. All long vowels and diphthongs at the end of the word were reduced to simple short vowels. 
Morphology Semigalian did not leave any written samples, so we had to study the language basing only on place names and "water" names in the regions of Latvia. This is why it is quite hard to say something definite about the morphological system of Semigalian. 
Lexicon The Semigalian vocabulary used many Slavic words, also some were borrowed from Livonian and Estonian, Finnish languages.
Writing No writing
Close Contacts Contacted mainly with Latgalian (further Latvian), Curonian, Lithuanian. 
Picture A hut
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