|Meanings:||a man, a husband, a human|
|Cognates:||Greek hers (a hero), aristos (the best) are thought sometimes to have derived from the same stem, as Indo-European *w disappeares in Greek. The first word is more probable.|
|Latin vr (a man, a husband), virtus
(virtue), Umbrian viru, veiru (acc.pl.; men)
French viril, virtu, Portuguese varao (a man) - ?
|Common Celtic *viro-, *vero- (a man) >
Gaulish uiro- (a man), Old Irish fer, Irish and Scottish Gaelic fear, Manx Gaelic fer, Old Welsh gur, Welsh gwr, Cornish gur, Breton gour
|Common Germanic *vero- (a man, a warrior)
Gothic wair, Old High German, Old English, Old Swedish and Old Frankish wer, Old Norse verr
English world (from *wer-ald "man's age, lifetime"), German Werwolf ("man-wolf"), Welt (world), Dutch wereld (world), Frisian wrld
|Avestan vra- (a man, a slave, a human being) - the word was contrasted with "cattle"|
|Sanskrit vra (a man), Gujarati wer
(a man, a husband)
Sanskrit veera (a hero), Bengali, Hindi veera
|Albanian burri (a husband) - we are not sure this comes from the same stem|
|Common Baltic *vro- (a man) >
Lithuanian vyras, Latvian virs, virietis, Old Prussian wjrs, Sudovian vras
|Slavic - not found|
|Notes:||In Proto-Indo-European there were several words for "a
man", but they all seemed quite different to its speakers because the exact meanings
differed: this very word meant "a human", contrasted with animals, non-speaking
creatures. This is easily seen in Avestan, but the semantic meaning was lost in most other
languages. The antonym for this term was *pek'u- "cattle".
The word was an o-stem masculine noun, which was preserved practically in all Indo-European branches.